“Addition and Subtraction” rules for the diet of the elderly
At present, there are 2.6 million elderly people over the age of 60 in Shanghai. 21 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions have become old-age regions.
The community is very concerned about the health of the elderly, including their diet, and the elderly are more concerned about it.
The physiological changes characteristic of the elderly The basal metabolism will gradually decrease, and the energy required will be less than that in the middle age.
Degenerative changes in various organs and tissues in the body: the weight of internal organs is continuously reduced; protein synthesis is reduced; muscle mass is gradually reduced; and adipose tissue and fibrotic tissue are increasing.
Cardiac function index, glomerular filtration rate, maximum lung ventilation per minute, and decreased lung capacity showed poor function of various vital organs.
The sensory organs are degraded, the taste buds of the tongue are reduced, and the response to sweet, salty and other tastes is slow, which is why the elderly often complain about the deterioration of food quality.
Defective teeth or dentures are not suitable, which makes the chewing function worse, affects the digestion and absorption of food, and is prone to indigestion and malnutrition.
Gastric acid secretion is reduced, and the surface area of the intestinal mucosa and the height of the villi are also reduced with age, resulting in a decrease in the digestion and absorption rate of various nutrients.
The reduction of immune function makes the elderly susceptible to infection by various pathogenic microorganisms and is more sensitive to carcinogens.
After retirement, most people’s social activities are reduced, their physical exertion is reduced, their reactions tend to be inflexible, and various actions are slow.
Detailed and comprehensive guidance Ingest a sufficient amount of high-quality protein, appropriate amount of carbohydrates, fish, seafood, milk, algae, vegetables and fruits, and properly limit fat, especially animal fat.
At the same time, you should participate in activities that are appropriate to your physical condition, have a regular life, maintain a good mentality, and be treated appropriately if you are sick.
The appropriate dietary intake per day is: 200-250 grams of grain, 50-100 grams of lean meat, poultry, fish, 40-50 grams of eggs, 30-50 grams of soy products, 200 ml of milk, 250-300 of vegetables.Gram, fruit 100-200 grams, 25 grams of edible oil.
+ Proteins The amount of protein synthesis in the elderly is reduced, so the total protein intake cannot be lower than that of adults.
You should take 1-1 per kilogram of body weight per day.
5 grams of protein.
The gastrointestinal function of the elderly is worse than that of adults. The quality of protein intake should be better than that of adults. It is advisable to eat more high-quality protein such as fish, chicken, lean meat, soy products and milk.
- Fat The total amount of fat consumed by the elderly every day is 50 grams, of which the edible oil does not exceed 25 grams.
Do not eat the same type of fat, such as eating too much lard, cream and other saturated fatty acids and high cholesterol containing animal internal organs, caviar, etc., easy to aggravate arteriosclerosis.
Marine fish in animals, because the fatty acids contained in them are unsaturated fatty acids that are easily used by the elderly, should be eaten as appropriate.
+ Dietary fiber Vegetables, fruits and beans are good sources of dietary fiber.
The old man’s chewing function is poor. Choose soy milk, tofu, dried bean curd and other soy products instead of blunt soybeans.
– Sweets The energy consumed from food should be 60%-70% of the total energy.
Some coarse grains can be eaten properly to promote bowel movements and prevent constipation.
Excessive sweets should be avoided to avoid poor appetite.
+ Water The right amount of water is good for the excretory function of the kidneys and prevents the formation of stones.
The daily intake of water for the elderly is about 2000 ml (including the moisture in the food).
The Five Principles of Diet for the Elderly + Foods are more fresh and have a color, aroma, taste and shape than young people to increase appetite.
– Cut as much as possible, chop the food and cook it, eat less or not eat food that is not easy to digest.
+ Eat high-protein, high-fiber, low-fat foods.
Eat more vegetables and fruits to prevent flatulence and constipation.
Drinking more water is conducive to the discharge of toxic waste.
– Eat less meals can reduce the burden on the gastrointestinal tract, delay the digestive tract dysfunction, and is also conducive to digestion and absorption.
– Try not to use laxatives to avoid affecting the absorption of nutrients.